jason818_253.33 wrote:

specificaly, the line in the drawing that sais send data. How is that part done? i have yet to find information to answere that question. how does it work? does any one have a good link or book that explains this part?


Ah! This is the greatest mystery in physics my friend!  Quantum Entanglement is what you need to Google for, and it will explain the unexplained fact that if you shoot a photon at two slits and track where they hit a wall behind it, you will see dots scattered with density localized around the area of the slits.  However, this only happens if you MEASURE which of the slits each photon chooses randomly through which to travel, but mysteriously, if you do not measure which of the paths each photon chooses to take, instead of a localized patterns you will see interference patterns, like waves, spread out from the slits, as if the photons were intefering which themselves.  Indeed, if you even only shoot one photon, you will still see an interference pattern. 

This proves the wave particle duality of light.  Now WHY?  Hypothesis range from multiple universes (the light goes through both always, and the universe essentially splits into two), of which the one you experience is the one in which you finally make the measurement and cause the "wave collapse", thus making the probability wave function of the photon travelling through either slit go from 50/50 (look up Schrodinger's Cat), to 100% - the one you OBSERVE - hence your observation makes the photon travel through one slit.

Even more mysteriously, the photon KNOWS before you measure it, that you WILL measure it.  Yes, it sounds nuts.  And it takes NO time for the photon to communicate - it happens instantanteously.  In addition, photons can be entangled, which means their internal states are somehow connected. 

This is called spooky action at a distance" (Einstein), or Quantum Entanglement.  Entangled photons, or any boson (non-mass bearing particle) and indeed, fermions (or matter - mass bearing) can be made.  By splitting a photon, polarizing one, and witnessing that the other instantaneously changes to the opposite polarity, it has been proven and demonstrated for a long time.

That line in the drawing is SpookyActionAtADistance.  It demonstrates one of the most counterintuitive aspects of what we understand experimentally, and provably about nature: 

It's Non-Localized.  This means that a photon at point A, doesn't just have to be at point A.  It means that things that are close to each other can have a much an effect on things that are far away, as they do to other close objects.  It means that you can cross space without travelling through it.  It means that there might only be one photon, but that relative to us, it travels through time and space and makes what appear to be copies of itself, but are not copies, they are actually the same photon.

Imagine if you travelled back in time 1 second at time t (a boson, such as a photon can occupy the same spacetime as another boson, but a fermion (matter) can't occupy the same spacetime as another fermion, so you better move a bit in space too).  Eventually you would fill all of space back to the beginning of time, if it exists.  There are a couple neat tricks we can play with this, so let t be the start time, and A-Z:

t-0 -> y(ou)
t-1 -> 2*y
t-2 -> 4*y
t-3 -> 8*y
t-n -> y * 2^n

So, it's exponential growth, if a photon travels back in time.  The cool thing about photons, is that their states can be entangled with one another as if they are the same thing, even through (apparently, or in theory) time.  Now, interestingly, going forward in time we get something resembling real particle physics that we can test, just go backwards, and imagine what would happen if you were the photon:

At t-n there are infinitely many of you, all together in one point of energy, possibly infinite energy.  As you move forward in spacetime more and more of you seem to break off shooting in random or not so random directions, the faster you travel back to t=0.  Eventually back at t-1 there will be two of you, YouA and YouB all alone again, then you will watch as YouB pushes himself off into spacetime with his "legs" made up of fermions that were once photons, but now their energy has been converted into mass, by interacting with spacetime itself. 

Particles appear and dissappear and annilliate each other and pop into and out of existance at short intervals.  Bosons don't "feel" time if they are pure energy - relatively proves this, and hence the maximum speed of light.  At the speed of light, ALL of the energy of a particle is "pushing" it through space, and none of it through relative time - to the boson, it would feel like time travel - ironically, it is moving "outside" of time.  That's why you can't catch light; the faster you travel through space to catch a photon, the more time relative to you slows down, and so to you the photon will always move at the same speed in a vacuum. 

This is another great mystery, and trying to explain relativity as well is too much for me, but I'll BET that it's because of entanglement, and we're always producing the frame of reference by our own observation - essentially being an observer collapses our own probability function and gives us mass.  If we convert all our mass into energy, we can no longer collapse the probability wave, and so time crawls to a halt - the probability of change of that which was observed approaches 0.  If light travels at c, then when we cease observing and the state does not change relative to us, instead it is "frozen in time".  But only to the one observer.

Probability of Change of State ~= 1/ Relative Velocity of Observer, hmmm, maybe.  Maybe it's bed time.  Cool

That was fun.