Well, if you tried to render a view without a controller, you'd be breaking out of MVC. Not sure how you'd use the global layout outside of MVC...seems like a lot of internal plumbing that you would have to manually execute somehow.
I don't think you could do much with the codebehind pages w/o modifications...the only way to serve them up properly so that they still work would be through an iframe. But then, you'd still have to modify those pages to strip out the menus and surrounding chrome.
My suggestion for the static pages still stands...you could just use jquery to load in something like the #contentInner section div into your MVC view (just have one view based on id). You wouldn't have to modify each static page in that case.