Most standards that have patented components either use components which are royalty-free licenced or FRAND licenced.
For example, JPEG is a web-standard, because it is a requirement of web-browsers to be able to decode JPEG images (but not a requirement, for example, to decode TIFF images). JPEG is (was?) patented but is provided royalty free. The W3C (rightly) saw the possibility of abuse here if JPEG decided that, say, Google weren't allowed to show JPEGs in Google Chrome any more, or Microsoft needed to pay 1 kajillion dollars to show JPEGs in IE - so they insisted that JPEG be made FRAND or free to be accepted as an Internet standard.
The H.264 video codec is very nearly a web-standard, because it will probably soon be a requirement of web-browsers to be able to decode H.264 video streams. H.264 is free for web-browsers, but is FRAND everywhere else, such as in BluRay players. since otherwise a company could buy the rights to H.264 to do attacks on companies that make BluRay players (like Microsoft).
Since this would be unfair, most standards committees make it a requirement that critical components of a standard are either available under a free or FRAND licence, so that anyone can implement the standard - even if they are a competitor of the holder of the component part.