The C++ Concurrency Runtime is new with Visual Studio 2010 and currently in beta. The runtime encapsulates and extends many new operating system features including NUMA resource locality and User-Mode-Scheduling.
The Parallel Patterns Library (PPL) provides an imperative programming model that promotes scalability and ease-of-use for developing concurrent applications. The PPL raises the level of abstraction between your application code and the underlying thread/task scheduling mechanisms by providing generic, type-safe algorithms and containers that act on data in parallel. The PPL also enables you to develop applications that scale by providing alternatives to shared state.
The PPL provides the following features:
Task Parallelism: a mechanism to execute several work items (tasks) in parallel.
Parallel algorithms: generic algorithms that act on collections of data in parallel.
Parallel containers and objects: generic container types that provide safe concurrent access to their elements.
By using PPL, you can introduce fine-grained parallelism without even having to manage a scheduler. You would use the Asynchronous Agents Library instead to express coarse-grained parallelism.
You'll want to subscribe to the Native Concurrency blog, find more resource and download example code from Code Gallery.