Tony has been working in the ICT industry in the area of messaging and directory services for over 20 years. He has worked in the UK, Switzerland and Australia and now runs a small independent consultancy in Wellington. While waiting to become a captain of industry he somehow stumbled into computers (not always figuratively). He thinks this has something to do with unresolved emotional trauma from having broken the plastic keypad on his Sinclair ZX81 while in his teens. Despite later having been exposed to an early Microsoft Exchange Server 4.0 Beta, Tony somehow made the switch from Unix to the world of Windows and started to get involved with Exchange and, more recently, Active Directory. He has been a recipient of the MVP (Directory Services) award for consecutive years since 2002. In his spare time he runs the popular "Active Directory Discussions" mailing list at and blogs at