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WGF / Windows Graphics Foundation & DX chat transcription

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    androidi

    Chat is over, there were few interesting questions.. Transcription follows..


    Edit: WGF information has popped up at http://www.anandtech.com/tradeshows/showdoc.aspx?i=2403&p=4 .. If I find more, I'll add it..

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    androidi

    Ed_H_MS (Moderator): Welcome to today’s chat on DirectX 9.0 Direct3D Graphics with VB.NET. We have members of the DirectX here to answer your questions today. I will ask the hosts to introduce themselves.

    Adam Gallant-MS (Expert): My name is Adam Gallant, and I'm a .NET Developer Evangelist with Microsoft.

    David Weller [MSFT] (Expert): I'm a Technical Evangelist at Microsoft, primarily focused on building demonstration applications for Longhorn. I've written two books called "Beginning .NET Game Programming" (one in C# and one in VB) and am currently working on a 2nd edition of the book. My blog is located at http://blogs.msdn.com/dweller or at http://www.inkblog.com/">http://www.inkblog.com.

    JCooke_MS (Expert): Hi! My name is Jason Cooke, and I'm a programmer/writer for Visual Basic User Education. I also coordinate the weekly Visual Basic chats.

    Rick Hoskinson [MS] (Expert): My name is Rick Hoskinson. I have been with Microsoft DirectX for 4 years, and I have been a test developer for Managed DirectX since joining the company. I am currently writing a book on managed game development using Managed DirectX and .Net Framework 2.0.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert): Hi, I'm Tom Miller, the designer and developer for the Managed DirectX libraries. My blog is @ http://blogs.msdn.com/tmiller

    Ed_H_MS (Moderator): And I am Ed Hickey, Visual Basic MVP Lead. Glad you all could make it today!

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: oops i meant't officail .x format that uses Xml....

    A: A new version of the ".x" file format is in the works. XML is being considered for this format.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Why is it so hard to access DirectShow via C#? Is there a preffered alternative? Is there any crossover between Avalon and DirectX?

    A: It's hard because there are no real 'supported' ways to access the libraries. While this may be improved in the future, we have currently not announced any plans.

    Rick Hoskinson [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Rick, do you know if/when can we see a fully 100% version of DirectX, one that supports things like DirectShow without using other peoples com wrappers and missing alot of buil in functionality.

    A: Currently our goal with managed DirectX is to expose the core graphics runtimes created by the DirectX team. We are not continuing support for Direct Show and have no plans to do so. However, we are still evaluating current and future DirectX technologies for new managed runtime layers.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: is any real big game was developed using managed code?

    A: I suppose that depends on what you define as 'real big game'. There have been a number of 'high profile' game development studio's using managed code for various parts of their games (ie, tools, scripting, etc), and a number of full retail games developed entirely in managed code.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Any hope for an enhanced bootstrapper setup project that would also install DirectX?

    A: Not at this time, but it's something we've been thinking about.

    Adam Gallant-MS (Expert):
    Q: What is the best language to use to learn DirectX? I have college C++ experience, but haven't programmed in years (IT worker). I'm interested in learning VB.NET at the same time as DirectX. Is this the best path or should I try C# or C++ instead?

    A: Either language is great. If you are already learning VB.NET, continue down that path, although some language co

    Adam Gallant-MS (Expert):
    Q: What is the best language to use to learn DirectX? I have college C++ experience, but haven't programmed in years (IT worker). I'm interested in learning VB.NET at the same time as DirectX. Is this the best path or should I try C# or C++ instead?

    A: sorry, some language constructs in C# may be a little more powerful, and you would find it relatively easy to learn. But all managed languages are good.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Is it safe to say that there will be no major additions to the ManagedDX stack untill Longhorn ships? (Such as Managed DirectShow suddenly appearing?) If not, can you tell us what we might expect?

    A: Managed DirectX changes just about every release (i.e., every two months) due to changes in the D3DX libraries. However assuming that there are no 'major additions' until Longhorn wouldn't be a wise choice. After all, Whidbey will be out before Longhorn, and you can rest assured we'll not ignore that. 

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: If DirectShow is not planned for future support then developers such as us who wish to be able to access Web Cams, TV Tuner cards, security cameras etc. what other options do we have? Do we have to wait 3-7 for a technology in Longhorn that won't be suppor

    A: DirectShow (and media technologies such as this) aren't really handled by our group anymore. I'm afraid I can't really discuss any future plans of these technologies since I'm honestly not aware.

    Rick Hoskinson [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Is the com interface not a "Supported way" to access DirectShow? I've had good success writing DirectShow apps with it.

    A: There is absolutely nothing preventing you from using P/Invoke or managed C++ to implement DirectShow in your own managed applications. As long as the core COM DirectShow API is supported, user interop can be a viable option.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: I have inherited a project written in C++ that uses DirectMusic and the MFC. I would like to migrate it to .NET. How should I access DirectMusic?

    A: There is no DirectMusic API's that ship with Managed DirectX. You can access them via COM Interop if you feel the need though.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Will future versions of DirectX be designed to interface better with C#, C++, or VB.NET? Or do you try have the API support all languages equally?

    A: We strive to have the API be CLS compliant and work with all languages equally.

    David Weller [MSFT] (Expert):
    Q: How about a dotnet/mdx runtime for the xbox/360? 4 us hobbyests...

    A: We have not announced any plans on supporting managed code in the next Xbox platform.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: What will the story for MDX be, when the Avalon layer on top of Whidbey hybrid (not Longhorn) ships?

    A: Avalon and MDX have entirely different 'customer' bases and solve radically different problems. There isn't really much (if any) overlap.

    Rick Hoskinson [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Why does Sprite.Draw2D apply the scale transformation after applying the shift transform?

    A: This is the way that core Direct3DX has implemented Drawing. From my understanding, it is because of the way batching is optimized with srpite operations.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: How do C# developer usually access things such as WebCams, and TV tuner cards if they arn't using DirectShow?

    A: Most times they simply use the DirectShow API's via either COM Interop or some of the 'wrappers' of the API that can be found on the web.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Any way to get read/write access to the backbuffer besides using SurfaceLoader.Save to dump it to a file and re-reading it back in?

    A: Once you have a surface from GetBackBuffer, you can do whatever you want with it.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Will future releases of Windows, come with DirectX runtimes?

    A: Yes.

    Rick Hoskinson [MS] (Expert):
    Q: How do C# developer usually access things such as WebCams, and TV tuner cards if they arn't using DirectShow?

    A: I've had some success using ActiveX drop-in controls, depending on what is needed. Depending on the webcam software, I've been able to use the Windows Media Player activeX control for simple playback of web cam video. Direct Show is still definately an option using interop or managed C++.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: What is the name of the COM component that includes DirectMusic functiality?

    A: You can search for the DirectMusic API's on MSDN.

    Adam Gallant-MS (Expert):
    Q: Are there any performance pitfalls we should watch out for wrt managed code and directx ?

    A: Boxing and Unboxing, Garbage Collection, Allocation, etc. Take a look at some of the tips at http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/dndotnet/html/dotnetperftips.asp

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Are there any performance pitfalls we should watch out for wrt managed code and directx ?

    A: Also, you can check my blog @ http://blogs.msdn.com/tmiller since i talk about performance, and performance related things relatively often.

    Rick Hoskinson [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Rick, how do you playback webcam video with a WMP control? I wasn't aware that that was possible.

    A: Again depends on the software. The Webcam I was using had a URL that I could use to direct video to WMP. Again, this is not as reliable or robust of a solution as DirectShow interop since it is very device dependant.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: I have seen a lot of c# samples in the SDK, and one mixed project with VBNet, are there or will there be in future as well VBNet samples

    A: As i discussed on my blog recently, the major reason for a 'lack' of VB samples is time and resources. Anytime we have any free time and resources, we look into adding more VB samples. I also know of a company that has ported all of the existing C# samples to VB.NET, and they will be 'releasing' them in the not too distant future.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert): nah, learn everything in binary! 

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: What are some good books and good online resources for learning DirectX

    A: Well, two of the experts here (myself and David) have books out already, and a third (Rick) has one on the way..

    Naturally, i'm biased towards mine.

    Rick Hoskinson [MS] (Expert):
    Q: What's the E.T.A. on your book Rick?

    A: We're shooting for end of 2005 at this time (around Xmas). We are planning to use CLR 2.0 features in our example code.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Any plans on updating your kick start book code to the latest and greatest MDX release Tom?

    A: I've talked with the publisher, and they're trying to decide the best way to handle this (ie, update the code only, a second edition, etc).. Updating the code is the most likely scenario given the changing MDX every other month with the new SDKs.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Is it possible to use/host MDX in Avalon based app? There has been interesting discussion around the most efficient game loop, would things be any different with Avalon based app regarding the game loop?

    A: There should be some interoperability between MDX and Avalon at some point in the future. "Game Loops" are not necessarily the same beast in Avalon as it more of a 'scene graph' API than a real time rendering API.

    David Weller [MSFT] (Expert):
    Q: Mr. Weller, are the two "Beginning .NET Game Programming" books already published and available?

    A: Yes, they have been for a while. The ISBN's are: C#: 1-59059-319-7 and VB: 1-59059-401-0


    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Tom, any idea when we will get all the DInput examples back in the SDK? (the InputMapper and such)

    A: At this time there are no plans for this in the near term. DirectInput hasn't been updated since DirectX8, and until there is something new to discuss, there will most likely not be any new samples.

    Rick Hoskinson [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Have you guys begun creating mini-games that work with .NET 2.0 and if so are there real major performance improvements that Game/algorithm based would see versus usuing 1.1?

    A: The biggest immediate payoff with CLR 2.0 are generics and generic collections, which radically improve the value-type boxing issues present in the current 1.1 framework collections. There were workarounds in 1.1, but they made for inelegant .Net code. Other things I've noticed in my own research has been better control over the garbage collector, enabling much more granular control over collections.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Would it currently be possible to build something like Avalon in managed D3D or does Avalon use some "advanced" features of unmanaged D3D/other Microsoft apis?

    A: Would it be possible? Sure.. That's a significant amount of work you'd need to do though.

    David Weller [MSFT] (Expert):
    Q: Rick, So in order to use your book, you will be assuming the developer has VS 200(5 or 6)

    A: I'll answer for Rick...both our books (which should be out in late 2005) will use new language features and .NET 2.0, but will not be VS 2005-dependent.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Granual control over the Garbate Collector - even in C# 2.0. I was told only MC++ was getting Finalistic derminalization

    A: That's true, although there are 'hints' you can give to the GC in 2.0 to make it 'more knowledgable'

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: or are there a few other things that have improved with GC for all langauges?

    A: Yes.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Recently you asked if we'd like to see a .NET 2.0-enhanced version of MDX. While I would, I'm wondering if the DX Runtime would then ship with the v1.1 assemblies as well as the v2.0 assemblies, or if the DX runtime would drop the older assemblies.

    A: For at least some period of time, both.

    Rick Hoskinson [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Will DXSAS eventually help in stuff like importing the code from tools like FxComposer/Rendermonkey or what kind of scenario its most useful in?

    A: DXSAS is contingent on external adoption of the standard annotations it specifies. If FxComposer or Rendermonkey does begin adhering to DXSAS, the import path into your own custom applications can be done in a standard way. For example, if you have a tool that converts SAS standard annotated effect files into your optimized renderer, as long as the artist tools you're using support DXSAS, your code can be independant of what tools are actually used.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: We have System.Drawing but no System.Audio, instead we have to use the DirectX DirectSound classes, when can we see anything resembling System.Audio without having to refer to the Microsoft.DirectX namepace?

    A: Well, just like in the unmanaged world, there's no real good way to access advanced audio API's without DirectX..

    Ed_H_MS (Moderator):
    Q: Ed why are is than everything about DirectX as documentation based on C#. They are almost equal so it is not a problem for me to use C# however my bias is more on VBNet you know.

    A: That is something we are working on, Cor. As we have historically written everything in C++ here, people are generally more comfortable using C#. We are getting more folks to use VB.Net in samples, demos, etc., but it is a slow process.

    JCooke_MS (Expert):
    Q: Tom, Rick: please let the MSDN people and your managers know we appreciate the Coding4Fun columns and that the MDX team should get some more technical writers/coders

    A: I'll pass that along to the folks at MSDN. As a technical writer, I'm glad you appreciate our work!

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Is it possible for an app to record audio from a source NOT selected on the Windows sound mixer?

    A: Assuming the driver is installed, the card is functioning properly and you know the device's GUID ID, yes.

    Rick Hoskinson [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Is there any hope for better Exception error message other than "Error in the application?"

    A: We're translating our error messages directly from HRESULT codes from the core COM APIs. At this time the type of the error is really the only pertinent information we have available without looking at the debug spew.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: DX guys... answer my question about System.Audio

    A: Didn't I already?

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Will shader editor tool in MDX be updated in future releases?

    A: What "shader editor tool" are you speaking of?

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: How long do you think it will take before game dev companies accept MDX as a legitimate platform. Based on demos I've seen I think MDX is ready for some big commercial games.

    A: It is, and some of the smaller companies have already adopted it and are using it.. Companies are looking to it more and more though, and soon i would expect more and more game developers to begin the migration.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: I mean if hobbiest can make games that play well and look good and still have a great framerate why can't professionals do the same?

    A: They can, but it literally can take years to complete a game once they've started.. Once 'new' games start development, you could expect more and more people to switch.

    Rick Hoskinson [MS] (Expert):
    Q: cont'd: shader tool = Effect Edit

    A: Effect Edit is a native application written in C++. If you're asking about a managed update, there are currently no plans to do so, but the idea has been discussed.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: If MDX is easier to use than plain DirectX, will Direct X 10 be based on MDX with non-MDX versions being sunset?

    A: Yes, MDX is easier to use. DX10 will have fully integrated managed support as well. The DX10 interfaces are being designed with managed code in mind, but there are no plans to ship *only* managed versions. There will still be unmanaged versions of the API's for the forseeable future.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Is there an "official" game loop? DoEvents? MessagePump? etc...

    A: It's a hard problem, which is why I've never given an 'answer' to the question on the blog..

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: We had a "game jam" internally here a couple of months ago. One developer decided to write the game in C++, I decided to write it in VB.NET. I had it done in 36 hours. He still hasn't finished.

    A: That's awesome..  It doesn't necessarily surprise me though.. I really don't envy the people still writing unmanaged code.

    Rick Hoskinson [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Is there an "official" game loop? DoEvents? MessagePump? etc...

    A: Nope! In fact, I'm starting to lose count of all the game loops I've encountered and profiled. Most native mode applications are using the application message loop, and the interop solution in previous versions of DXMUT (managed sample framework). However, those wishing to use WinForms have a different set of needs, reflected in the varying techniques used. Tom and I have discussed the pros and cons of the different methods at length in our blogs.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Is DX10 the WGF we've heard about?

    A: More or less.

    David Weller [MSFT] (Expert):
    Q: We had a "game jam" internally here a couple of months ago. One developer decided to write the game in C++, I decided to write it in VB.NET. I had it done in 36 hours. He still hasn't finished.

    A: That's great to hear! Our position has always been that you can develop code faster using managed languages. There will always be a place for C++, but we feel that managed languages (like C#, VB, and even C++/CLI) are great paths to building applications quickly.

    David Weller [MSFT] (Expert):
    Q: For all the experts: Are you currently writting any games yourselves just for the fun of it?

    A: I'm writing several games for my book. I'd write more, but that would cut into my World Of Warcraft gaming time 

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: For all the experts: Are you currently writting any games yourselves just for the fun of it?

    A: I start writing a new game every 6 months. Then i get busy and never finish it.. 6 months later, i start again on something new. It's a process that repeats itself forever, and has been going on for about 10 years now.. One of these days though.. I'll finish one of them.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Will DX10 be available for Longhorn only?

    A: Yes

    David Weller [MSFT] (Expert):
    Q: I have a bet that the DirectPlay replacement is tied to Indigo somehow. Can you make me a quick $5?

    A: Indigo is a managed solution. I think you lost $5 

    Ed_H_MS (Moderator):
    Q: When will the transcript of this chat be available?

    A: Usually in about a week - it should be at http://www.msdn.microsoft.com/chats/recent.asp

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Will there be MDX for DX10?

    A: Yes.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Tom: I'm looking to write a DX routine to take a video stream, overlay some text and a bitmap and display (or save) the video. Does your Kickstart book cover this type of application?

    A: Unfortunately no. I cover nothing in video other than simple playing of them, and even that is only briefly.

    Rick Hoskinson [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Any gotchas as far as using MDX with applications integrated into Windows XP Media Center Edition?

    A: Nothing beyond the standard gotcha's for multimeida apps on Media Center. We are looking into the possibility of samples and documentation on proper directX and graphics nuances of developing for TV screens.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Does using MDX require "full permissions" of sorts? I mean, if you were to develop a ClickOnce deployable small game, could it use MDX and VS/PS without popping up nasty boxes asking for administrator password or something if you were on a more limited acc

    A: MDX requires a number of security permissions that by default are only granted under full trust, such as SkipVerification, AllowUnmanagedcode, etc.

    David Weller [MSFT] (Expert):
    Q: Will unmanaged DX be phased out as MDX becomes more popular?

    A: No. There will always be a need for both managed and unmanaged DX APIs in Windows.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Will there be MDX for Longhorn's equivalent of DirectShow?

    A: As far as I know, yes, but given i'm not in that particular team, I can't promise anything.

    David Weller [MSFT] (Expert):
    Q: Can we get a channel 9 interview from DX or MDX "teams" at some point in future?

    A: I'm going to talk to Scoble and the Channel 9 team about this (Robert is in my office next door to me  ). I certainly agree this is a good idea!

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Tom, I know you said Rick was handling the next book in the series you started but are you going to start writing again anytime soon?

    A: It would be nice, but given the small amount of free time I have, it seems unlikely. Anytime I start getting more though, it's on my mind.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Will DirectX ever be object based, like drop a mesh into a special winform, edit its properties with propertygrid, double click for default event...etc? Just dreaming here.

    A: Not something we're planning currently, but it is something we've considered in the past.

    Rick Hoskinson [MS] (Expert):
    Q: Do you have any D3D in winforms example code? Something that uses multiple D3D controls in one application.

    A: In upcoming releases of the DirectX SDK we are discussing samples that show rendering to controls on a win form.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: So when is the next release?

    A: June. We release new SDK's every other month now.

    Tom Miller [MS] (Expert):
    Q: I just heard about a book called "Programming Microsoft DirectShow for Digital Video and Television". Anyone know anything about the book?

    A: Unfortunately not.

    Ed_H_MS (Moderator): This has been a great chat. Thank you to everyone for contributing. Unfortunately, it is time to go. Thanks for participating, and we'll see you next time!

    The transcript from today's chat will be posted on http://www.msdn.microsoft.com/chats/recent.asp

    Adam Gallant-msft- (Expert):
    Q: how can i use the directx api from media center to develop new add-ins? like to use the buttons,animations....

    A: Well, add-ins for MCE are currently written using the .NET FW 1.0, so using manageddx would be a problem. However, you could create a control (winforms control) that hosts MDX, and host it inside MediaCenter as a standard HTML application. Or you could write to native API using C++...

    David Weller [MSFT] (Expert):
    Q: Do y'all know of any other great sites like The ZBuffer?

    A: What other site do you need to know? That's the perfect place for Managed DirectX news  (thanks ZMan!) Actually, that's the only significant site I know of that's dedicated to MDX.

  • User profile image
    Minh

    Thanks androidi. I don't know why it'd take a week to publish the official transcript. Anyway, this is the most exciting non-denial item of the chat:

    David Weller [MSFT] (Expert):
    Q: How about a dotnet/mdx runtime for the xbox/360? 4 us hobbyests...

    A: We have not announced any plans on supporting managed code in the next Xbox platform.

  • User profile image
    androidi

    Another interesting bit was the confirmation that there's team working on a DirectShow 'equivalent' of sorts in the Longhorn timeframe. Of course we had seen this long coming but to actually confirm there's a team working on it..

  • User profile image
    rhm

    Yeh. A replacement for DShow with managed support would be welcome sooner rather than later.

  • User profile image
    Minh

    Did you notice that all this will come in DX10, which is Longhorn only.

  • User profile image
    rhm

    DX10 is going to be called WGF in longhorn though isn't it?

    I'll reiterate the point I made some time ago about Avalon - if it's only available in Longhorn, nobody will program to it. I don't see many people upgrading to Longhorn, not in the first few years anyway. It'll be like when win98 came out and lots of people stayed in win95 for years. XP was a watershed release that got a lot of people all on the same version and since it works pretty well Longhorn will have to be *really* frickin' good to get anyone to upgrade. Therefore any API that's only available on Longhorn will basically go unused for a long time.

  • User profile image
    bonk

    MS always likes to say the the jump from xp to longhorn can be compared to the one from 3.11 to 95. If  I remember right 95 was spreading pretty fast ....

  • User profile image
    geekling

    Thanks Data!

  • User profile image
    Minh

    rhm wrote:

    I'll reiterate the point I made some time ago about Avalon - if it's only available in Longhorn, nobody will program to it.
    You missed it when they announced that Avalon will be available for XP, didn't you?

  • User profile image
    geekling

    Minh, he is implying that the same thing will hold true for WGF--if its only for Longhorn, nobody will use it.

    I think he's partially right--I wouldn't try to ship any software for mass consumption using WGF if it was only available on Longhorn, though hobby-stuff may just do.

  • User profile image
    rhm

    Minh wrote:
    rhm wrote:
    I'll reiterate the point I made some time ago about Avalon - if it's only available in Longhorn, nobody will program to it.
    You missed it when they announced that Avalon will be available for XP, didn't you?


    "Some time ago", as in before they anounced the backport of Avalon to XP obviously.

  • User profile image
    Minh

    geekling wrote:
    Minh, he is implying that the same thing will hold true for WGF--if its only for Longhorn, nobody will use it.

    I think he's partially right--I wouldn't try to ship any software for mass consumption using WGF if it was only available on Longhorn, though hobby-stuff may just do.
    Ahh, re-reading the post, you're right. It occurs to me that Longhorn will also support DX9, so we can always stick with that. I wonder what the motivation behind WGF is. It seems distinct enough to discontinue it from the DirectX line. I wonder if this is MS's attempt to "do it right". In which case, developers should rejoice (after the shock of learning yet another API). Programming should be easier, then, with WGF. Well, onward, I guess.

  • User profile image
    androidi

    Anandtech WinHEC wrapup article has some interesting info regarding  WGF 1.0 (DX 9.L?) / WGF 2.0 ("DX10")

    it was stressed that Microsoft doesn't want software developers to have to cater to multiple hardware paths in order to get good performance. In fact, they went so far as to say that they wanted a tight enough spec so that WGF 2.0 hardware would all support the same features implemented in the same way. Foreshadowing this, all capability bits have been eliminated from WGF 2.0 (meaning that either hardware will or will not support exactly the same set of functions as all other WGF 2.0 hardware).

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