Note: I'm not from Microsoft Legal. I used to be employed by Microsoft, but this should not be construed as me speaking for Microsoft.
This one is a bit of a weird file, I admit. The sole purpose of the font is to provide UI widgets as character glyphs. While Visual Studio does provide a selection of graphics that can be freely redistributed when embedded, this font is not included in that
Also, this file is not listed in redist.txt as one that allows redistribution.
However, the argument you could make is that you are attempting to ensure a standard user experience across products.
If I had to make a guess based off of how Microsoft handles things, I would say, "No." The font file's sole use by Microsoft is as a support file for Visual Studio. MSLegal would probably come across as thinking that if people start embedding one Visual Studio
file without explicit permission, the next step would be to embed the IDE. (They're paranoid like that.)