I'm pretty sure you don't need Windows 10 Pro ... but don't take my word for it. You should probably search for it. Windows 10 Pro (or greater) is required.
@stahtufiang: No, there's really nothing in C# 6 that is a "must know" to build apps and I want to keep the barrier to entry as low as possible.
@jeffcato: "I changed it to Debug|X86 and all the debug targets returned." I'll be honest, I don't know the answer to that question. Perhaps someone at Microsoft could help us out here?